Bill Clinton appointed Hawkins in 1994. President Barack Obama appointed Murguia in 2010.
A section of Bonds' appeal is based on a 1973 U.S. Supreme Court case, Bronston v. U.S., that declared in a perjury case "a jury should not be permitted to engage in conjecture whether an unresponsive answer, true and complete on its face, was intended to mislead or divert."
Bonds' jury failed to reach a verdict on three counts of making false statements, which accused him of lying when he denied taking steroids given to him by Anderson, denied receiving human growth hormone from Anderson and said only physicians injected him. Illston declared a mistrial on those counts, and the government then dismissed them.
Illston sentenced Bonds to 30 days house arrest, two years of probation, 250 hours of community service in youth-related activities and a $4,000 fine. She delayed the sentence pending the appeal.