But the general, who will retire this spring, acknowledged in one of three interviews during his recent trip to Niger that the command's ability to address the terrorist threat in Africa had been "mixed."
His grades? "Pretty good" in Somalia, where the Shabab, Islamist militants, have been dealt several setbacks in the past year. "Less good" in Libya, Mali and other parts of North and West Africa, where the United States is hunting Mokhtar Belmokhtar, a militant leader who claimed responsibility for the attack on a gas field in Algeria last month. And lacking in Nigeria, where an Islamist extremist group, Boko Haram, poses a major threat.
''Frankly, the intelligence community has not focused a lot on this part of the world," Ham said. "But we are starting to, out of necessity."
With the war in Afghanistan winding down, senior Pentagon officials are scrambling to address the growing threat in North and West Africa by repositioning spy satellites and shifting surveillance aircraft from other theaters, all at a time when shrinking military budgets are forcing the Obama administration to make difficult choices on where to accept more risk.
The Pentagon is preparing to establish a drone base in Niger so that it can increase surveillance missions on the local al-Qaida affiliate, al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, and associated groups. Starting this year, the Africa Command will also send small teams from a 4,000-member brigade in Kansas to conduct nearly 100 exercises and training programs in 35 African countries.
''We're going to see more and more demands on Africom," Hillary Rodham Clinton, then secretary of state, said in January.
As for Benghazi, Ham said he did not request any additional forces to be on hand in the region for the anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, saying there was no specific intelligence indicating an imminent attack.
He acknowledged that "knowing what I know now would I make different decisions? Absolutely." A special emergency force, which all combatant commands have but that the Africa Command did not until Oct. 1, now splits time between Europe and its base in Colorado. Ham said he is drawing up plans to have other forces in Europe, West Africa or Djibouti ready to respond quickly to a crisis.
''Instead of responding in a day," he said, "they could respond within some number of hours."
But with the Obama administration wary of putting U.S. boots on the ground, Ham and his lieutenants are sticking to the philosophy "African solutions to African problems."
"The underlying ethos remains the same: We're not looking to be the security provider for Africa," said Dell, Ham's deputy.
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U.S. training programs have not always worked. As insurgents surged across Mali's northern desert last year, U.S.-trained commanders of the country's elite army units defected at a critical time, taking troops, trucks, weapons and their newfound skills to the enemy.
A confidential internal review completed in July by the Africa Command concluded that there were critical gaps in the U.S. training for Malian troops and senior officers.
"We've focused exclusively on tactical and technical," Ham said in a speech in January in Washington. "We didn't spend probably the requisite time focusing on values, ethics and a military ethos that says when you put on the uniform of your nation, then you accept the responsibility to defend and protect that nation, to abide by the legitimate civilian authority."
In Niger, officials reached a status-of-forces agreement in January that clears the way for greater U.S. military involvement in the country, including the drone base.
''The U.S. should do more in the area training, equipment, land and air, and intelligence capability," Niger's president, Mahamadou Issoufou, said in an interview. "African countries face threats beyond their means."
Ham insists that the command can carry out both combat operations and its original "soft power" missions, taking cues from envoys in the region like Bisa Williams, the U.S. ambassador in Niamey.
Williams said the command responded to her request a year ago to help train Niger's troops to improve relations with its citizens. The command ended other practices at her request, like financing the purchase of T-shirts urging Nigeriens to vote, money that could be better spent elsewhere, she said in an interview.
''That's what I need from you," Williams recalled Ham telling her later. "I need for you to tell me if we're tone deaf or in the wrong lane."
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