Instances like the deaths of 10-year-old Marcus Holloway and 12-year-old Cheyenne Wolf leave Snyder and child advocates wondering if the extra eyes and ears of a teacher are needed to protect Oklahoma’s most vulnerable residents.
On May 5, 2011, Marcus died of apparent starvation by his mother, Candice Holloway, and her boyfriend, Cornell C. Williams. Williams was a U.S. Army private at Fort Sill, where the family lived on base.
The couple were charged in Oklahoma City’s federal court with first-degree murder. Testimony in the case showed that on the day Marcus died he weighed 44 pounds, about 26 pounds less than what a healthy 10-year-old boy should weigh.
It’s alleged that between January through May of 2011 Marcus was fed only rice cakes and water and lost close to half of his body weight.
Candice Holloway claimed she homeschooled Marcus.
Equally tragic was the death of Cheyenne, whose stepmother, Denise Wolf, withdrew the 12-year-old from public school in January 2008 to homeschool her where they lived in Bokchito.
Cheyenne suffered from spina bifida, a birth disorder of the spine that caused her to be incontinent and wear leg braces for the duration of her short life.
Instead of offering her stepdaughter an education, Wolf tied Cheyenne to a chair and routinely beat her, authorities said.
It’s believed that Cheyenne died of a concussion in 2008. Wolf was sentenced to five life prison terms.
“I don’t see risks with parents who actually homeschool their children,” Snyder said. “But there is a risk of neglect or abuse in cases where parents withdraw their children from school and only claim to homeschool them.”
Snyder said she has seen cases where parents claim to homeschool their children but neglect to do so.
“Home school can be a wonderful place for families to provide their children with a viable and strong education, but we need to know which parents are choosing to homeschool their children for all the right reasons and which parents are using home schooling to harm their children,” Snyder said.
DHS spokeswoman Sheree Powell said Oklahoma teachers are required by law to report suspected abuse.
According to a DHS statistical summary for the 2012 fiscal year, 9,842 cases of substantiated child abuse and neglect were reported in Oklahoma. Of those reports, 906 came from school teachers or administrators.
Yet Snyder and Powell agree that a teacher should not bear the sole responsibility of safeguarding a child from harmful parents.
“Teachers are not the only people who see kids on a daily basis,” Powell said. “Everybody from grocery store clerks to postal service workers, neighbors and relatives need to take a proactive stance against child abuse and report it even when they just suspect it. Often, it takes a collaborative effort to stop it.”
Thinking about change
Homeschool parent Jay McCurry believes the same mentality can be said for educating Oklahoma’s children.
“We don’t homeschool our children because we’re against public schooling. I have a great deal of respect for our education system and the teachers here in Oklahoma,” McCurry said.
McCurry is director of corporate enterprises at Central Rural Electric in Stillwater and a former Edmond school principal. His wife, Kelly, previously taught music at a public school in Moore.
“Even the school will stress that a child’s education is the product of a partnership between the school and the parent,” he said. “Believing you can just drop your kid off at school and that their education is the responsibility of the teachers alone is setting your child up for failure.”
The McCurrys use Classical Conversations to educate their four daughters, Abigayle, Aliya, Adah and Ari.
“There are several factors that led us to choose this route for them,” Jay McCurry said. “When you look at a typical classroom setting there are about 26 to 27 students, all with different backgrounds and learning styles. So one of my girls would be one out of 26. With Kelly, they’re 1 in 4.”
“Before they came along, I used to think that when the time came for my children to go to school I would have my days back. My house would always be clean and I would have free time to spend with my girlfriends,” Kelly added with a laugh. “But I wouldn’t want it any other way now. I love being with them.”
Neither the McCurry’s nor the Shelton’s believe home schools should be monitored, but say something should be done to protect children from parents who abuse the system.
“Every year within our state legislature there is someone who wants to put regulations on home schooling. Some want to create the case that public schools are not performing well and others are concerned about the welfare of children,” Baressi said. “It’s true that there are a few individuals who for all the wrong reasons try to hide what they do within their home but that’s no reason to track down good parents.”
Baressi said preventing child abuse and neglect can be done through strengthening the state’s law enforcement. She suggests that judges who place parents on parole specify in their parole plans that the parent’s children must be enrolled in a formal educational institution and not be homeschooled.
Snyder suggests that parents who want to homeschool their children register to do so with the state Department of Education within 30 days of withdrawing them from public or private school or within 30 days before the child’s fifth birthday, when the education of a child becomes mandatory by state law.
“If a DHS worker came across a case where the parent claimed to be homeschooling their child, all they would have to do is check if that child is registered. If the parent turns out to be lying about their child’s registration that would be grounds to suspect educational neglect and would lead the DHS worker to wonder what else they’re lying about,” Snyder said.
Dawn Shelton pondered the subject on that same March morning as her children studied nearby.
“You should get to know these kids,” she said referring not just to her children but to all home schooled ones. “They are so bright. I have confidence that they’ll be the next generation of movers and shakers. I hate to think of any child being hurt by their own parents. I honestly don’t know how to solve that problem. I wouldn’t even know where to begin.”
She looked both lovingly and admirably at her children. “But I bet they will.”