"You need a reason to use them," Goldston said. "That won't happen if you're both eliminating the incentive to bring them in, which seems to be one of the things she's talking about, and not creating any requirement to bring them in."
Murkowski said the 115-page document was about a year in the making. It's in the national interest to make energy abundant, affordable, clean, diverse and secure, she said.
Among the 200 policy proposals are partnerships with Canada and Mexico to ensure their oil exports are brought to the United States, she said, which should begin with immediate approval of the Keystone XL Pipeline.
Others are tied to Alaska. The proposal calls for revenue sharing from federal offshore leases for money that could be used for Arctic infrastructure and a Department of Energy natural gas export license that would promote an Alaska natural gas pipeline.
Murkowski called for reform in permitting processes to reduce delay, uncertainty and excessive litigation, and for development of methane hydrates, the so-called frozen gas that binds with water molecules and releases when warmed or depressurized.
The proposal also calls for more hydropower, geothermal and tidal energy development.