At the past six Olympic Games, both summer and winter, Russian athletes were either stripped of medals and expelled for positive tests or competed under clouds of suspicion. Here's a glance:
SALT LAKE CITY, 2002: Cross-country skiers Larissa Lazutina and Olga Danilova stripped of gold and silver medals, after testing positive for performance-enhancer darbepoetin.
ATHENS, 2004: Previous doping offender Irina Korzhanenko stripped of shot-put gold after testing positive for steroid stanozolol. Runner Anton Galkin expelled, also for stanozolol positive; weightlifter Albina Khomich barred for failing pre-competition test.
In 2012, Svetlana Krivelyova, who moved up to bronze after Korzhanenko's disqualification, was stripped of that medal after International Olympic Committee retesting of her stored Athens samples found the steroid oxandrolone.
In 2013, IOC also stripped Oleg Perepechenov of weightlifting bronze after retest found fat-burning, muscle-building drug clenbuterol in his stored Athens sample.
TURIN, 2006: Biathlete Olga Pyleva stripped of silver medal, positive for stimulant carphedon.
BEIJING, 2008: Steeplechaser Roman Usov withdrawn and was subsequently banned for carphedon positive. Runners Olga Yegorova, Tatyana Tomashova, Yelena Soboleva, Yulia Fomenko and Svetlana Cherkasova, plus field athletes Gulfiya Khanafeyeva and Darya Pishchalnikova suspended days before the Olympic opening ceremony after an IAAF investigation found they tampered with urine samples. Head of IOC's medical commission, Arne Ljungqvist, called this "systematic doping" and "planned cheating."