Role: Since-fired assistant Penn State football coach. Was a graduate assistant in 2001, when he says he witnessed Sandusky pressing himself against a boy in a team shower. McQueary took his complaint to Paterno, who alerted university administrators.
Background: McQueary testified at Sandusky's trial that he had "no doubt" Sandusky was having intercourse with the boy. He has since filed a whistle-blower lawsuit against the university, claiming that he lost his $140,000-a-year job, that he was defamed, that his comments were misrepresented by Spanier and other administrators, and that he was made a scapegoat for the scandal and the administration's alleged failure to act on his initial complaint to Paterno.
Role: The longtime football coach was told by McQueary in 2001 that he saw Sandusky and a boy in a shower on campus and, in turn, told Curley and Schultz.
Background: The head coach at Penn State from 1966 through 2011, and major college football's winningest when he retired, Paterno offered to resign at the end of the 2011 season amid the uproar after Sandusky's arrest Nov. 6. The Penn State Board of Trustees, however, ousted him for what was called his "failure of leadership" surrounding allegations about Sandusky. He died of lung cancer Jan. 22. Freeh said that Paterno "was an integral part of this active decision to conceal" the abuse and that his firing was justified. The NCAA has since vacated 111 of Paterno's 409 career wins, as part of a package of scandal-related sanctions against the football team and the university. Paterno's family continues to maintain that he didn't cover up anything and didn't know Sandusky was a pedophile.
Role: Married to Joe Paterno for almost 50 years, she raised five children with him and has continued to passionately defend her husband during the scandal and after he died. She was among the Sandusky defense team's potential trial witnesses but wasn't called to the stand. She has continued her philanthropic work at the university, appearing last month at the dedication of a $6.5 million campus Catholic center named for her.
Role: Now the governor of Pennsylvania, he was attorney general when the investigation into Sandusky was launched by state prosecutors.
Background: Corbett is an ex-officio member of the Penn State Board of Trustees, although he did not actively participate until after Sandusky was charged in December.
Role: Pennsylvania attorney general, whose office prosecuted Sandusky.
Background: A career prosecutor formerly with the U.S. attorney's office in Pittsburgh, Kelly inherited the Sandusky probe from Corbett when she was confirmed as his temporary successor as attorney general. She leaves office in January.
Role: Former CEO of The Second Mile, the charity Jerry Sandusky founded.
Background: Raykovitz led the charity for almost 30 years and was a longtime friend of Sandusky's. Raykovitz testified before the grand jury that recommended indicting Sandusky on child abuse charges. He resigned from The Second Mile soon after the scandal broke, and board members later complained that Raykovitz hadn't told them enough about earlier allegations against Sandusky. The charity's internal investigation by former Philadelphia District Attorney Lynne Abraham ended in May without issuing a report on its findings.