Bridenstine defeated incumbent Rep. John Sullivan, R-Tulsa, in the Republican primary in June and Democrat John Olson in the general election.
He is the former executive director of the Tulsa Air and Space Museum.
The Science, Space and Technology Committee has wide jurisdiction over such matters as energy research, NASA and the National Weather Service.
“Serving on the Committee on Science, Space and Technology will give me a great opportunity to support the private sector as it sets future directions for U.S. energy, aviation and space flight,” Bridenstine said.
“Oklahoma's 1st District has a rich heritage in all these industries and can be a major contributor to each one in the future.”
Oklahoma's other incoming House freshman, Republican Markwayne Mullin, who won the open eastern Oklahoma seat, was assigned last week to committees that oversee the nation's transportation policy, American Indian tribes and federal land.